The sixth assessment report (AR6) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Climate Change in 2021: The Basis of Natural Science stated that due to human influence, all regions of the world are experiencing irreversible climate change. The IPCC’s latest climate change report on Monday (August 9) stated that extreme sea-level events that previously occurred once every 100 years may occur every year at the end of this century. Scientists warned of rising sea levels, floods, and heavy rain. The melting of glaciers has some irreversible effects. Coastal areas will continue to rise throughout the 21st century, leading to more frequent and severe coastal flooding and coastal erosion in low-lying areas, as well as extreme sea-level events that have occurred once every 100 years, and this may happen once a year at the end of this century.
This century, The IPCC Working Group 1 report is the first part of AR6 and will be completed in 2022. The report was approved by the governments of 195 IPCC member states through a two-week virtual meeting. Since July 26, it is expected that climate change in all regions will intensify in the coming decades. He said that with global warming of 1.5 degrees Celsius, the heatwave will increase, the warm season will be longer, and the cold season will be shorter. When global warming is 2 degrees Celsius, extremely high temperatures tend to reach critical tolerance thresholds for agriculture and health, but this is not only related to temperature. Climate change is bringing many different changes to different regions, and these changes will intensify with further warming. He said these include changes in humidity and dryness, wind, snow and ice, coastal areas, and oceans.
However, the report gives hope that from a physical science point of view, it is still possible to limit global warming to less than 1.5 degrees, which means that these changes can be slowed down and prevented from worsening. Dr. Friederike Otto, deputy director of the University’s Institute of Environmental Change, said that there is still a two-thirds chance of reaching 1.5 degrees. If we achieve global net-zero emissions by the middle of this century, there is still a one-third chance of achieving this goal. From Oxford, one of the authors of the IPCC report. To limit global warming, carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases must be reduced vigorously, rapidly, and continuously. Otto said that this will not only reduce the consequences of climate change but will also improve air quality and bring many other common benefits.
The temperature is stable. Studies have found that further warming of the land will intensify the melting of permafrost and the disappearance of seasonal snow, the melting of glaciers and ice caps, and the disappearance of Arctic sea ice in summer. The changes in the ocean, including warming, more frequent ocean heat waves, ocean acidification, and lower oxygen levels, are related to human influence. It said these changes affect marine ecosystems and the people who depend on them and will continue at least for the rest of this century. The report said that for cities, certain aspects of climate change may be amplified, including heat (given that urban areas are usually warmer than the surrounding environment), flooding caused by heavy rainfall, and rising sea levels in coastal cities.